Pupils' writing communicates meaning through simple words and phrases. In their reading or their writing, pupils begin to show awareness of how full stops are used. Letters are usually clearly shaped and correctly orientated.
Pupils' writing communicates meaning in both narrative and non-narrative forms, using appropriate and interesting vocabulary, and showing some awareness of the reader. Ideas are developed in a sequence of sentences, sometimes demarcated by capital letters and full stops. Simple, monosyllabic words are usually spelt correctly, and where there are inaccuracies the alternative is phonetically plausible. In handwriting, letters are accurately formed and consistent in size.
Pupils' writing is often organised, imaginative and clear. The main features of different forms of writing are used appropriately, beginning to be adapted to different readers. Sequences of sentences extend ideas logically and words are chosen for variety and interest. The basic grammatical structure of sentences is usually correct. Spelling is usually accurate, including that of common, polysyllabic words. Punctuation to mark sentences - full stops, capital letters and question marks - is used accurately. Handwriting is joined and legible.
Pupils’ writing in a range of forms is lively and thoughtful. Ideas are often sustained and developed in interesting ways, with organisation generally appropriate for purpose. Vocabulary choices are often adventurous and words are used for effect. Pupils are beginning to use grammatically complex sentences, extending meaning. Spelling, including that of polysyllabic words that conform to regular patterns, is generally accurate. Full stops, capital letters and question marks are used correctly, and pupils are beginning to use punctuation within sentences. Handwriting style is fluent, joined and legible.
Pupils’ writing is varied and interesting, conveying meaning clearly in a range of forms for different readers, using a more formal style where appropriate. Vocabulary choices are imaginative and words are used precisely. Sentences, including complex ones, and paragraphs are coherent, clear and well developed. Words with complex regular patterns are usually spelt correctly. A range of punctuation, including commas, apostrophes and inverted commas, is usually used accurately. Handwriting is joined, clear and fluent and, where appropriate, is adapted to a range of tasks.
Pupils’ writing is fluent and often engages and sustains the reader’s interest, showing some adaptation of style and register to different forms, including using an impersonal style where appropriate. Pupils experiment with a range of sentence structures and varied vocabulary to create effects. Spelling, including that of irregular words, is generally accurate. Handwriting is neat and legible. A range of punctuation is usually used correctly to clarify meaning, and ideas are organised into well-developed, linked paragraphs.
Pupils’ writing is confident and shows appropriate and imaginative choices of style in a range of forms. Characters and settings are developed in their narrative writing. Their non-fiction writing is coherent and gives clear points of view, taking account of different perspectives. Grammatical features and vocabulary are used accurately and effectively. Spelling is correct, including that of complex irregular words. Work is legible and attractively presented. Paragraphing and correct punctuation are used to make the sequence of events or ideas coherent and clear to the reader.
Pupils show creativity in the way they select specific features or expressions to convey effects and to interest the reader. Their narrative writing shows control of characters, events and settings, and shows variety in structure. In non-fiction, they express complex ideas clearly and present them coherently, anticipating and addressing a range of different viewpoints. Their use of vocabulary and grammar enables fine distinctions to be made or emphasis achieved. Their writing shows a clear grasp of the use of punctuation and paragraphing.
Pupils’ writing is original, has shape and impact, shows control of a range of styles and maintains the interest of the reader throughout. Narratives use structure as well as vocabulary for a range of imaginative effects, and non-fiction is coherent, reasoned and persuasive, conveying complex perspectives. A variety of grammatical constructions and punctuation is used accurately, appropriately and with sensitivity. Paragraphs are well constructed and linked in order to clarify the organisation of the writing as a whole.